Structure of native vertebrate faunas within 12 different forest types were related to features of the natural fire regime. Relations between faunal structure and fire regime followed patterns expected if faunas were adapted to fire regimes. Proportions of species breeding early in succession tended to increase with increasing fire size or burn rate (ha/year; p = 0.03); those breeding late in succession tended to decrease (p = 0.04). As fire size increased, proportions of species breeding in cavities decreased (p< 0.01). Proportions of species using downed wood to breed increased as the interval between fires increased and downed wood accumulated (p< 0.01). Forestry practices to maintain biodiversity should mimic natural disturbance patterns, which differ across forest types. Implications for management to maintain vertebrate diversity are summarized in terms of the silvicultural system employed, the size of patches logged, the rate of timber removal, and the appropriate degree of connectivity among unlogged patches.