Medusahead (Taeniatherum asperum) has replaced cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and other annual grasses over extensive areas in California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington during the past 40 years. It has low palatability, injurious, and pesky awns, and completely dominates affected areas. Avoidance by livestock and resistance to rapid decomposition result in medusahead stands with thick accumulations of old growth. Wildfires are common. Recovery to preburn levels of biomass and density is achieved in a few years. One perennial-grass candidate to replace medusahead is bottlebrush squirrelhead (Sitanion hystrix). Seedlings of this grass possess some needed traits to endure the stresses of annual grass competition during the first growing season.