A conceptual ecosystem model illustrates principles of ecosystem management in wetlands. Wetlands are excellent systems for the development of ecosystem management principles because they are relatively simple ecosystems and respond quickly to changes in their environment. The model shows stressors and subsidies as the driving forces of wetland ecosystems. Ecosystem management focuses on wetland functions and uses the driving forces of ecosystems to achieve desired goals. Fire is an example of a wetland stressor that also acts as a subsidy. Fire accelerates, arrests, or redirects succession, favors certain species, mineralizes nutrients, and consumes biomass. Wetland management wlll evolve towards a greater emphasis on ecosystem manipulation to achieve specific wetland functions regardless of species composition. Such types of ecological engineering depend on the preservation of wetland biodiversity and will result in wetland ecosystems with new combinations of species.