Fire burns 3,000-1,000,000 acres annually, It is a natural part of the ecology of the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Fire alters the site, growing conditions on the site, site resilency, and the habitat of users of the site. It promotes site productivity by recycling nutrients, warming soils, melting permafrost, and exposing patches of mineral soil which make excellent surfaces for germinating seeds. It maintains landscape diversity and promotes young, highly productive forests and high quailty food material. However, the unprotected mineral soil may erode and stability of some of the ice-rich permafrost sites is destroyed, at least for a time. © by the Society of American Foresters. Abstract reproduced by permission.