The appropriate level of fuel treatment following silvicultural activities depends on the fuel complex, fire occurrence rate, climate, topography, suppression capability, fire effects, values at risk, and treatment costs. Managers must account for uncertainty in these factors. A procedure combining decision analysis, fuel modeling, and fire modeling techniques is described which deals explicitly with these uncertainties. Alternative fuel treatment effects, fire occurrence rate, levels of fire behavior, and fire suppression effectiveness are incorporated in a decision tree which evaluates the possible outcomes associated with the fuel treatments. Two case studies are presented illustrating the use of the decision process.