Fire behavior and the use of fire retardants in Canadian forests
Document Type: Conference Paper
Author(s): A. D. Kiil
Publication Year: 1975

Cataloging Information

  • Canada
  • combustion
  • coniferous forests
  • crown fires
  • dead fuels
  • droughts
  • fine fuels
  • fire control
  • fire equipment
  • fire frequency
  • fire intensity
  • fire retardants
  • fire size
  • fire suppression
  • flammability
  • foliage
  • fuel moisture
  • fuel types
  • grasslands
  • human caused fires
  • ignition
  • lightning caused fires
  • live fuels
  • mortality
  • nitrogen
  • pH
  • phosphorus
  • plant growth
  • rate of spread
  • season of fire
  • surface fires
  • topography
  • tundra
  • water
  • wildfires
  • wind
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 34931
Tall Timbers Record Number: 9217
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Fire File DDW
TTRS Abstract Status: Okay, Fair use, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


'This Symposium comprises several interrelated parts aimed at familiarizing chemists, physicists, engineers and managers with the latest developments in all aspects of flammability and fire retardants. My assigned topic suggests that my presentation should accomplish this task from a forestry perspective. Firstly, I will consider, in general terms, the effects of weather, fuel and topography on forest fire behavior. Secondly, I will discuss the application and effectiveness of commonly-used chemical fire retardants in containing and extinguishing wildland fires in northern forests, including their effects on the environment. In particular, I have tried to isolate and discuss those factors and effects which optimize the capabilities of fire retardants in different fuel and fire situations. As used in this paper, the term fire retardant refers to retardant chemicals which, when applied to forest fuels, alter the combustion process to produc,e less flammable products whiie increasing the amount of nonflammable products (George and Blakely, 1972). In contrast, water and water-based 'short-term retardants' rely primarily on their cooling action to slow fire spread and they lose their effectiveness after the water has evaporated.'

Kiil, A. D. 1975. Fire behavior and the use of fire retardants in Canadian forests, International Symposium on Flammability and Fire Retardants, 1975. Program Coordination and Evaluation Branch, Canadian Forestry Service, p. 175-186,