Smoldering spread rate: a preliminary estimate
Document Type: Conference Paper
Author(s): W. H. Frandsen
Publication Year: 1994

Cataloging Information

  • duff
  • moisture
  • rate of spread
  • wilderness fire management
  • wildfires
  • wind
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 34845
Tall Timbers Record Number: 9124
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Fire File
TTRS Abstract Status: Okay, Fair use, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


Smoldering spread rates (cm h-1) are derived from the results of an experimental evaluation of the unit area burning rate of smoldering material (g cm-2 h-1). The unit area burning rate, which is the load loss rate normal to the smoldering surface, depends only on the moisture and inorganic content of the smoldering material. A derivation shows how the smoldering spread rate can be expressed as the ratio of the load loss rate to the organic bulk density (g cm-3). A nomogram estimates the smoldering spread rate in terms of the organic bulk density, and the moisture and inorganic contents of the fuel bed. © by the Society of American Foresters. Abstract reproduced by permission.

Online Link(s):
Frandsen, W. H. 1994. Smoldering spread rate: a preliminary estimate, Missoula, Montana. p. 168-172,