Document


Title

Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes region
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): L. E. Frelich; C. G. Lorimer
Publication Year: 1991

Cataloging Information

Keyword(s):
  • Acer rubrum
  • Acer saccharum
  • age classes
  • arthropods
  • Betula alleghaniensis
  • bibliographies
  • Canada
  • clearcutting
  • community ecology
  • crown fires
  • dendrochronology
  • diameter classes
  • distribution
  • disturbance
  • dominance (ecology)
  • droughts
  • ecosystem dynamics
  • fire intensity
  • fire regimes
  • fire scar analysis
  • Great Lakes
  • habitat conversion
  • hardwood forests
  • histories
  • human caused fires
  • insects
  • lakes
  • land use
  • landscape ecology
  • light
  • lightning
  • logging
  • mesic soils
  • Michigan
  • mortality
  • mosaic
  • mountains
  • national forests
  • old growth forests
  • openings
  • Ottawa
  • overstory
  • pine
  • Pinus resinosa
  • Pinus strobus
  • pioneer species
  • plant communities
  • plant diseases
  • plant growth
  • Populus grandidentata
  • Populus tremuloides
  • precipitation
  • presettlement vegetation
  • sampling
  • seedlings
  • senescence
  • size classes
  • slash
  • sloping terrain
  • stand characteristics
  • state parks
  • statistical analysis
  • storms
  • succession
  • surface fires
  • Tilia americana
  • topography
  • trees
  • Tsuga canadensis
  • wilderness areas
  • wildlife refuges
  • windthrows
Region(s):
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 34378
Tall Timbers Record Number: 8610
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Journals-E
TTRS Abstract Status: Okay, Fair use, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.

Description

The frequency of natural disturbances and their influence on the forest landscape mosaic were investigated on three large tracts of primary forest in Upper Michigan. Seventy 0.5 ha plots were randomly distributed in a total forest area of 23000 ha dominated by sugar maple and eastern hemlock. Radial increment patterns were used to estimate canopy accession dates for each of a number of randomly selected overstory trees on each plot. From these data a disturbance chronology, representing the percentage of stand area occupied by cohorts originating during each decade over the last 130 yr was compiled for each plot. Average rates of disturbance or canopy mortality are estimated at 5.7 to 6.9% per decade. The corresponding average canopy residence time of a tree is 145-175 yr. No significant differences were detected in average disturbance rates among the three study areas, between plots near the coast of Lake Superior and inland plots, among several different aspects, and among several different slope positions. Natural rotation periods increase exponentially with increasing disturbance intensity, which is defined as the approximate percentage of the plot area converted to gaps during a disturbance episode. Estimates of rotation periods range from 69 yr for >or= 10% canopy removal to 1920 yr from >or= 60% canopy removal. Spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated that plots with light and medium disturbances (<40%) are randomly distributed over the landscape. Plots with heavy disturbances (>or= 40%) are clustered with a patch radius of approx.2 km, consistent with the sizes of thunderstorm downbursts. The data indicate that light and medium disturbances dominate the disturbance regime. The majority of stands on the landscape are composed of several major and many minor age classes. Even-aged stands with one predominant age class are uncommon. The age distribution of individual patches or cohorts in the two larger study areas (14,500 and 6073 ha) follows a nearly uniform distribution. None of the three study areas had more than 15% of the forest area converted to gaps in a single decade. The two larger areas meet most of the criteria that have been proposed for equilibrium landscapes.© by the Ecological Society of America. Abstract reproduced by permission.

Online Link(s):
Citation:
Frelich, L. E., and C. G. Lorimer. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes region. Ecological Monographs, v. 61, no. 2, p. 145-164.