Longleaf pine natural regeneration is a practical and inexpensive option for most existing longleaf pine forests, provided there is an adequate seed source and competition in the stand is controlled. The shelterwood system appears best suited to the requirements of the species. The final harvest takes place after the new stand is established, so the land is not out of production during the wait for a good seed crop. The shelterwood stand maximizes per-acre seed production, and produces sufficient needle litter to fuel fires hot enough to limit hardwood encroachment. Careful advance planning, annual monitoring of cone crops, annual regeneration surveys, and proper timing and execution of cultural treatments, including regeneration cuttings, are essential to success.