Two experiments were conducted to determine whether Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) discriminate covey mates from noncovey mates on the basis of recognition of the individual giving the separation call. Two possible modes of recognition, phenotype matching and call association, were tested. Artificially and naturally hatched quail chicks from two familial lines of linebred quail and quail of crossed lines were reared and tutored by either a related or an unrelated adult. Chicks were separated one at a time and visually isolated midway between their own adult tutor-parent and a strange adult or between their own covey and a strange covey in a two-choice recall paradigm for testing. In both linebred and crossed lines quail, chicks preferentially approached calls of the foster parent or covey mates with whom they were reared with no apparent predilection due to relatedness, with no regard for which birds answered the lost or separation call first, and with no dependency on similarity of call characteristics. All evidence indicated that association learning was the main factor in recognition with no evidence of kin recognition attributable to phenotype matching.