In order to characterize the fires regime of the southern boreal forest and to understand the way in which landscape and fire regime interact, a detailed study of fire history was undertaken in two adjacent contrasting landscapes in northwestern Quebec. The fire history for the islands of Lake Duparquet was reconstructed and compared to that of the surrounding lakeshore. Fire occurrence was determined by archival search and by collection of information from fire scars. Dendroecological techniques were used to determine years of stand initiation on the lakeshore and for a subsample of the islands. Stand initiation data were used to estimate fire frequency, fire cycle, and fire intensity (lethal and non-lethal fires). Tree composition and surficial deposits were sampled in order to assess the possible effect of topography and forest cover on fire frequency. We suggest that fire regime in the boreal forest is controlled by long-term climate change at the regional scale, and by a strong interaction with landscape at the local scale, both components having a great impact on the distribution and the dynamics of boreal vegetation.© by the Ecological Society of America. Abstract reproduced by permission.