Sustaining the availability and quality of forest and rangeland ecosystems is a problem facing our society now and into the future. Since fire is a significant process in these ecosystems, managing fire is a part of this environmental problem. Insufficient knowledge seriously limits our ability to manage fire as an ecosystem process. Research must be conducted to provide the required understanding. But to be effective, the research must be directed to both operational products for management, and the fundamental understanding that forms the basis for the operational products. [Paper presented as part of Working Group Technical Sessions B1-Fire, Fire Is Part of the Answer.] © Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD. Abstract reproduced by permission.