PROJECT OBJECTIVES As requested under Tasks 8 and 9, user-friendly modeling systems designed for local use will be provided for modeling smoke from wildland fires. These tools will provide a means for conducting tradeoff analyses, with a focus on emissions production, of prescribed fire vs. wildfire. 1. System development--The FARSITE Fire Area Simulator will be expanded to allow modeling of smoke production, reflecting the effect of changes in space and time. The BEHAVE Fire Modeling System will be expanded to include additional fire models, including smoke production and fuel consumption. It will be consistent with FARSITE and will produce table and graph outputs useful for tradeoff analysis. FARCALC Fire Area Calculator will be a spatial implementation of the fire models in BEHAVE, without the fire growth functionality that is in FARSITE. These systems will be based on a set of consistent, widely applicable fire models, resulting in consistent interpretation of results and simplification of training efforts. 2. Implementation. Implementation will build on ongoing processes. Training material will be developed for FARSITE and BEHAVE. Existing courses will be expanded or modified. Technology transfer plans will be extended. 3. Weather and fuel moisture: Methods will be developed and incorporated into the systems for adjusting weather parameters across the landscape. A spatial climatology will be developed. Linkages will be developed to allow use of NFDRS weather and calculated l000h fuel moisture. An improved fine fuel moisture model will be implemented. 4. Fuel Characterization: All fuel components will be included in the systems as required by the fire models. BEHAVE will include a linkage to the natural fuel photo series for characterization of crown fuel, surface fuel for spread, and heavy woody material for fuel consumption. 5. Fire modeling: Fire modeling will be strengthened. A model for the burnout of fuel behind the fire front will be tested, expanded to reflect smoldering and flaming combustion. New analysis of emission factors will be used in modeling smoke production. In addition, modeling work will be conducted to provide the capability to model heat transfer from surface fire (necessary for linkages to other fire behavior and effects models), linkage of the surface model to the fuel consumption model and a soil heating model, and improved crown fire modeling.