Fire ecology of red pine (Pinus resinosa) in northern Vermont, U.S.A.
Document Type: Journal Article
Author(s): F. Brett Engstrom; Daniel H. Mann
Publication Year: 1991

Cataloging Information

  • Acer rubrum
  • Acer saccharum
  • age classes
  • age structure
  • Amelanchier
  • Betula papyrifera
  • charcoal
  • coniferous forests
  • crown fires
  • deciduous forests
  • dendrochronology
  • diameter classes
  • distribution
  • dominance
  • European settlement
  • Fagus grandifolia
  • fire dependent species
  • fire exclusion
  • fire frequency
  • fire injuries (plants)
  • fire intensity
  • fire regimes
  • fire scar analysis
  • flammability
  • Gaylussacia baccata
  • hardwood forest
  • light
  • mortality
  • mosaic
  • mountains
  • overstory
  • Picea rubens
  • pine
  • Pinus
  • Pinus resinosa
  • Pinus strobus
  • plant growth
  • Quercus rubra
  • red pine
  • regeneration
  • sampling
  • seed germination
  • seedlings
  • shrubs
  • size classes
  • sloping terrain
  • stand characteristics
  • surface fires
  • Tsuga canadensis
  • understory vegetation
  • Vaccinium angustifolium
  • Vermont
  • wildfires
Record Maintained By:
Record Last Modified: June 1, 2018
FRAMES Record Number: 20111
Tall Timbers Record Number: 7764
TTRS Location Status: In-file
TTRS Call Number: Journals-C
TTRS Abstract Status: Okay, Fair use, Reproduced by permission

This bibliographic record was either created or modified by the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy and is provided without charge to promote research and education in Fire Ecology. The E.V. Komarek Fire Ecology Database is the intellectual property of the Tall Timbers Research Station and Land Conservancy.


Red pines (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in northern New England exist within small islands of fire-prone habitat surrounded by relatively nonflammable, deciduous forest. We studied the fire history and age structure of six red pine stands at an upland site in northwestern Vermont. Red pine is dominant in the canopy but rare in seedling and sapling size classes. Red pine is usually dependent on fires for regeneration. Fire scars record at least 17 different fires in the study area between the early 1800s and 1922. No fires are recorded between 1922 and 1987. The survival of numerous saplings in burned stands indicates that most of the fires were light surface fires. At least eight fires preceded periods of red pine recruitment recorded by the ages of living trees. These fires were probably locally intense, tree-killing fires. A similar regime of frequent, nonlethal fires and infrequent, lethal fires occurs in other parts of red pine's range.

Online Link(s):
Engstrom, F. Brett; Mann, Daniel H. 1991. Fire ecology of red pine (Pinus resinosa) in northern Vermont, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 21(6):882-889.