The forests of interior Alaska are used for a variety of consumptive and nonconsumptive uses. Multiple- or single-use management of these forests requires a working knowledge of how these uses affect the sustained yield or availability of a particular product or use. Many biotic and abiotic environmental variables as well as socio economic concerns must be considered in developing these management alternatives. A knowledge of the reproductive biology and ecology is a necessary component in this decision-making process. Sustained production has, as an absolute requirement, the ability of the land manager to predict or determine the consequences of any disturbance in terms of the species composition and density; a detailed knowledge of the reproductive process is one important component necessary for developing this predictive capability. In many cases, it is possible for the land manager to create conditions that are more or less favorable for a selected species or group of species, and thus to exercise some control over the natural developmental process and pattern of forest types and distribution of trees within a type.