Aim: In order to understand fire's impacts on vegetation dynamics, it is crucial that the distribution of fire sizes be known. We approached this distribution using a power-law distribution, which derives from self-organized criticality theory (SOC). We compute the global spatial variation in the power-law exponent and determine the main factors that explain its spatial distribution. Location: Global, at 2Â° grid resolution. Methods: We use satellite-derived MODIS burned-area data (MCD45) to obtain global individual fire size data for 2002-2010, grouped together for each 2Â° grid. A global map of fire size distribution was produced by plotting the exponent of the power law. The drivers of the spatial trends in fire size distribution, including vegetation productivity, precipitation, population density and net income, were analysed using a generalized additive model (GAM). Results: The power law gave a good fit for 93% of the global 2Â° grid cells with important fire activity. A global map of the fire size distribution, as approached by the power law shows strong spatial patterns. These are associated both with climatic variables (precipitation and evapotranspiration) and with anthropogenic variables (cropland cover and population density). Main conclusions: Our results indicate that the global fire size distribution changes over gradients of precipitation and aridity, and that it is strongly influenced by human activity. This information is essential for understanding potential changes in fire sizes as a result of climate change and socioeconomic dynamics. The ability to improve SOC fire models by including these human and climatic factors would benefit fire projections as well as fire management and policy.