Question: Is Artemisia filifolia (Asteraceae) a fire-resilient shrub or is it similar to most other Artemisia shrub species in North American which are considered fire-sensitive? Location: Cooper Wildlife Management Area, Woodward County, Oklahoma, USA. Methods: Data on Artemisia filifolia plant density and structural characteristics (percent cover of live and dead shrubs, shrub height, shrub canopy area, and shrub volume) were collected in areas that had been burned once at one-half, one, two, three, four and five years after an initial burn and compared to data collected in areas that had not been burned. Data on density and structural characteristics of Artemisia filifolia also were collected in areas that had been burned twice at one-half, one, and four years after being burned the second time. Results: Density of A. filifolia was not affected by one or two fires and structural characteristics, although initially altered by fire, recovered to levels characteristic of unburned areas in one to four years after burning. Conclusions: Unlike most North American Artemisia shrub species, our research suggests that A. filifolia is highly resilient to the effects of fire. Therefore, use of prescribed fires for the restoration and maintenance of ecosystem processes and properties is appropriate in A. filifolia shrublands of the southern Great Plains in North America.