The literature describing animals’ behavioral responses to fire, discussed in chapter 3, is limited. Furthermore, short-term responses do not provide insights about the vigor or sustainability of the species in an area. Studies of animal populations and communities are more helpful in providing such insights. Most research regarding fire effects on fauna focuses on the population level, reporting changes in abundance and reproductive success of particular species following fire. Population changes are the net result of the behavioral and short-term responses discussed in chapter 3, plus longer term responses (years to decades).