Corresponding with the increasing global resource demand, harvesting now affects millions of hectares of boreal forest each year, and yet our understanding of harvesting impacts on boreal carbon (C) dynamics relative to wildfire remains unclear. We provide a direct comparison of C stocks following clearcut harvesting and fire over a 27-year chronosequence in the boreal forest of central Canada. Whereas many past studies have lacked measurement of all major C pools, we attempt to provide complete C pool coverage, including live biomass, deadwood, forest floor, and mineral soil C pools. The relative contribution of each C pool to total ecosystem C varied considerably between disturbance types. Live biomass C was significantly higher following harvesting compared with fire because of residual live trees and advanced regeneration. Conversely, most live biomass was killed following fire, and thus post-fire stands contained higher stocks of deadwood C. Snag and stump C mass peaked immediately following fire, but dramatically decreased 8 years after fire as dead trees began to fall over, contributing to the downed woody debris C pool. Forest floor C mass was substantially lower shortly after fire than harvesting, but this pool converged 8 years after fire and harvesting. When total ecosystem C stocks were examined, we found no significant difference during early stand development between harvesting and fire. Maximum total ecosystem C occurred at age 27 years, 185.1 Â± 18.2 and 163.6 Â± 8.0 Mg C ha^-1 for harvesting and fire, respectively. Our results indicate strong differences in individual C pools, but similar total ecosystem C after fire and clearcutting in boreal forests, and shall help improve modeling terrestrial C flux after stand-replacing disturbances.