Abstract from introduction: 'Over the next 50-100 years, the predicted doubling of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to increase summer temperatures up to 4-6 degrees C at higher latitudes (Boer et al. 1992: Maxwell 1992: Ferguson 1995). In a 2 x CO2 climate, summer precipitation is expected to be 105-160% of current, with more falling in storms and less as steady rain (Maxwell 1992: Ferguson 1995). This altered climate may include longer periods between rains (Woton and Flannigan 1993). As discussed in Chapter 20, with the predicted warming it is anticipated that fire incidence will increase, with more frequent major fire years. Increased fire activity will result not only from longer periods with favorable burning conditions but from increased frequency of fire ignition from lightning strikes over much of the boreal forest as a result of climate change (Price and Rind 1994 a, b). The predicted climate warning and resultant increase in fire occurrence and severity would increase carbon emission (Kasischke et al.1995b).'