This chapter presents a broader, more fundamental view of the ecological principles and shifting fire regimes described in the previous chapters that have important implications for ecosystem management. Also included are strategies and approaches for managing fire in an ecosystem management context and sources of technical knowledge that can assist in this process. Research needs are also described. The ecological fundamentals that underlie the effects of fire on flora and fuels can be described under four broad principles: 1. Fire will occur with irregular pattern depending on climate. 2. Diversity of species and vegetation pattern depends on fire diversity. 3. Fire initiates and influences ecological processes such as regeneration, growth and mortality, decomposition, nutrient fluxes, hydrology, and wildlife activity. 4. Humans exert a commanding influence on ecosystems by igniting and suppressing fire.