[Excerpted from text] Most experienced firefighters have encountered fire whirlwinds. These whirls, or "fire devils" as they are sometimes called, range in size from small twisters a foot or two in diameter up to violent whirls equal to small tornadoes in size and intensity. Graham gives examples where tornado-like fire whirls have twisted off large trees and lifted large logs. Whirlwinds have also occurred on fire fires. In his account of the great Chicago fire of 1871, Musham states that burning planks were lifted by fire whirlwinds and dropped as fat as three-eighths of a mile ahead of the main fire. He attributes a large part of the destruction of the city to burning material carried by the fire whirlwinds.
[This publication is referenced in the "Synthesis of knowledge of extreme fire behavior: volume I for fire managers" (Werth et al 2011).]