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Fire behavior is commonly defined as the manner in which fuel ignites, flame develops, and fire spread and exhibits other related phenomena as determined by the interaction of fuels, weather, and topography.

Below are a selection of publications authored or co-authored by Dr. Martin E. Alexander that are not already listed on the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS), Crown Fire Initiation and Spread (CFIS) System, International Crown Fire Modeling Experiment (ICFME) or Crown Fire Behavior Characteristics and Prediction in Conifer Forests: A State of Knowledge Synthesis pages on FRAMES. Dr. Alexander retired from the Canadian Forest Service in November 2010 after nearly 35 years of service. At the time, he was a Senior Fire Behavior Research Officer stationed at the Northern Forestry Centre in Edmonton, Alberta. His primary research interests still focus on wildland fire behavior and forest/grassland fire danger rating, including the practical and scientific application of such knowledge to fire/fuel management and other disciplines.


Martin E. Alexander
Wild Rose Fire Behaviour
curriculum vitae (pdf)


Displaying 1 - 165 of 165
People Title Sort descending Year Type
Eckert, Alexander 'Brewer fire mystery' discussion 2004 Document
Alexander 'Lest we forget': Canada's major wildland fire disasters of the past, 1825-1938 2010 Document
Thorburn, MacMillan, Alexander, Nimchuk, Frederick, Van Nest 'Principles of Fire Behavior': a CD-ROM-based interactive multimedia training course 2003 Document
Alexander A comment on models and modelling in fire/fuel management 2004 Document
Alexander A fuels management bibliography with subject index 2007 Document
Cruz, Gould, Alexander, Sullivan, McCaw, Matthews A Guide to Rate of Fire Spread Models for Australian Vegetation 2015 Document
Cruz, Alexander, Sullivan A response to 'Clarifying the meaning of mantras in wildland fire behaviour modelling: reply to Cruz et al. (2017)' 2018 Document
Alexander, Cruz A rule of thumb for estimating a wildfire's forward spread rate 2019 Document
Alexander A Rule of Thumb for Estimating a Wildfire’s Forward Spread Rate from Wind Speed Alone 2019 Media
Alexander A synthesis on crown fires in conifer forests is underway 2011 Document
Lawson, Stocks, Alexander, Van Wagner A system for predicting fire behavior in Canadian forests 1985 Document
Kiil, Quintilio, Alexander Adaptation of a national system of fire danger rating in Alberta, Canada: a case study in technology transfer 1986 Document
Fogarty, Pearce, Catchpole, Alexander Adoption vs. adaptation: lessons from applying the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System in New Zealand 1998 Document
Alexander, Ackerman, Baxter An analysis of Dodge's escape fire on the 1949 Mann Gulch Fire in terms of a survival zone for wildland firefighters 2009 Document
Alexander An emerging fire management issue in Canada: forest-fire fuels 2002 Document
Alexander, Janz, Quintilio Analysis of extreme wildfire behavior in east-central Alberta: a case study 1983 Document
Alexander Are we abusing our use of models and modelling in wildland fire and fuel management? 2009 Document
Alexander Are wildland-urban interface fire disasters avoidable? 2009 Document
Cruz, Alexander, Sullivan, Gould, Kilinc Assessing improvements in models used to operationally predict wildland fire rate of spread 2018 Document
Alexander Can wildland conflagrations be stopped? 2004 Document
St. John, Alexander Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System: training now available on CD-ROM 2004 Document
Cruz, Alexander Canopy-fuel characteristics of conifer forests 2014 Document
Vaillant, Ewell, Fites-Kaufman Capturing crown fire behavior on wildland fires - the Fire Behavior Assessment Team in action 2014 Document
Fernandes, Sil, Rossa, Ascoli, Cruz, Alexander Characterizing fire behavior across the globe 2020 Document
Cruz, Alexander Comments on "Evaluating crown fire rate of spread predictions from physics-based models" 2019 Document
Alexander Computer calculation of the Keetch-Byram Drought Index-programmers beware! 1990 Document
Taylor, Alexander Considerations in developing a national forest fire danger rating system 2003 Document
Cruz, Alexander Crown fires 2010 Document
Cruz, Alexander, Vaillant, Peterson Crown fires in conifer forests of the world: do you have something to contribute or would like to know about something? 2011 Document
SanMiguel-Ayanz, Carlson, Alexander, Tolhurst, Morgan, Sneeuwjagt, Dudfield Current methods to assess fire danger potential 2003 Document
Cruz, Butler, Alexander, Viegas Development and evaluation of a semi-physical crown fire initiation model 2006 Document
Fernandes, Sil, Ascoli, Cruz, Alexander, Rossa, Baeza, Burrows, Davies, Fidelis, Gould, Govender, Kilinc, McCaw Drivers of wildland fire behaviour variation across the Earth Document
Alexander Drought and wildland fire: searching for practical solutions 2005 Media
Cruz, Gould, Alexander, Sullivan, McCaw, Matthews Empirical-based models for predicting head-fire rate of spread in Australian fuel types 2015 Document
Alexander, Cruz Energy release rates, flame dimensions, and spotting characteristics of crown fires 2014 Document
Alexander Estimating the length-to-breadth ratio of elliptical forest fire patterns 1985 Document
Alexander Estimating Wildfire Rate of Spread in Grasslands 2022 Media
Cruz, Alexander, Fernandes, Kilinc, Sil Evaluating the 10% wind speed rule of thumb for estimating a wildfire's forward rate of spread against an extensive independent set of observations 2020 Document
Cruz, Alexander Evaluating the 10% wind speed rule of thumb for estimating a wildfire’s forward spread rate 2021 Document
Alexander, Cruz Evaluating the 3-m tree crown spacing guideline for the prevention of crowning wildfires in lodgepole pine forests, Alberta 2020 Document
Cruz, Alexander, Fernandes Evidence for lack of a fuel effect on forest and shrubland fire rates of spread under elevated fire danger conditions: implications for modelling and management 2022 Document
Alexander, Pearce, Farrow, Smart Experimental fires in radiata pine logging slash within the Kinleith Forest during early 1993 1993 Document
Lavoie, Alexander Experimental reburns 1-4 years after high-intensity crown fire - abstract 2004 Document
Alexander, Sando Fire behavior and effects in aspen-northern hardwood stands 1989 Document
Alexander Fire behavior as it relates to firefighter safety: seven key points for discussion 2003 Document
Alexander Fire behavior as it relates to firefighter safety: six key points for discussion 2003 Document
Alexander Fire behavior considerations ... for safe and productive fire suppression 2005 Media
Alexander Fire behavior forecasting in the boreal forest: two decision support aids for Canadian fire managers 1991 Document
Alexander, Stocks, Lawson Fire behavior in black spruce-lichen woodland: the Porter Lake project 1991 Document
Alexander Fire behavior in moderately heavy logging slash: documenting the past with photographs 2010 Document
Alexander Fire behavior knowledge gaps (& research needs) pertaining to ecosystem management - invited paper 2000 Document
Alexander Fire behaviour as a factor in forest and rural fire suppression 2000 Document
Alexander, Heathcott, Schwanke Fire behaviour case study of two early winter grass fires in southern Alberta, 27 November 2011 2013 Document
Cruz, Sullivan, Leonard, Malkin, Matthews, Gould, McCaw, Alexander Fire behaviour knowledge in Australia: a synthesis of disciplinary and stakeholder knowledge on fire spread prediction capability and application 2014 Document
Cruz, Sullivan, Alexander Fire behaviour knowledge in Australia: knowledge gaps and Fire Behaviour Analyst (FBAN) training revision plan 2014 Document
Pearce, Alexander Fire danger ratings associated with New Zealand's major pine plantation wildfires 1994 Document
Beck, Parminter, Alexander, MacDermid, Van Nest, Beaver, Grimaldi Fire ecology and management 2005 Document
Thomas, Alexander Fire Management Today offers its services to wildland fire safety 2006 Document
Scott, Bowman, Bond, Pyne, Alexander Fire on Earth: An Introduction 2014 Document
Frost, Jenkins, Alexander Fire regime analysis of Army Garrison Camp Williams 2020 Document
Greebe Fire science between the covers 2018 Document
Frost, Alexander, DeRose, Jenkins Fire-environment analysis: an example of Army Garrison Camp Williams, Utah 2020 Document
Moriarty, Cheng, Hoffman, Cottrell, Alexander Firefighter observations of “surprising” fire behavior in mountain pine beetle-attacked lodgepole pine forests 2019 Document
Alexander, Thorburn Fireline safety training course available on CD-ROM 2001 Document
Alexander, Thomas First of its kind: a historical perspective on wildland fire behavior training 2004 Document
Alexander Foliar moisture content input in the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction System for areas outside of Canada 2010 Document
Alexander, Thomas Forecasting wildland fire behavior: aids and guides, and knowledge-based protocols 2004 Document
McAlpine, Stocks, Van Wagner, Lawson, Alexander, Lynham Forest fire behavior research in Canada 1990 Document
Alexander Forest fire protection and management in Nova Scotia: Reflecting on the past, the present, and the future 2008 Document
Bell Forest fires in northern Canada (with an introduction by Martin E. Alexander) 1889 Document
Alexander Fuel management in relation to wildland fire prevention: a new and/or old concept? 2005 Document
Alexander Help with making crown fire hazard assessments 1988 Document
Alexander How big was Dodge's escape fire? 2010 Document
Alexander How much fuel is in that pile or windrow? 2007 Document
Alexander, Baxter, Dakin How much time does it take for a wildland firefighter to reach a safety zone? 2013 Document
Alexander, Cruz How Well Does the 10% Wind Speed Rule of Thumb Work for Estimating Wildfire Spread Rates? 2021 Media
Cruz, Alexander, Sullivan, Gould, Kilinc Improvements in Australia’s bushfire rate of spread models over time 2020 Document
Alexander Improving wildland firefighter safety and public safety through fire behavior research and development 2007 Document
Alexander, Tymstra, Frederick Incorporating breaching and spotting considerations into PROMETHEUS - the Canadian wildland fire growth model 2004 Document
Instructor Companion Site for the Book 'Fire on Earth: An Introduction' 2014 Website
Alexander Interview with Marty Alexander Regarding the 3-m Crown Spacing Guideline 2021 Media
Alexander, Cruz Introducing the Canopy Fuel Stratum Characteristics Calculator 2010 Document
Alexander Introduction to the article by H.E. Wright Jr. and M.L. Heinselman: The ecological role of fire in natural conifer forests of western and northern North America - Introduction 2014 Document
Alexander, Cruz, Vaillant Introduction to the special issue on crown fire behavior in conifer forests 2014 Document
Alexander, Baxter, Ackerman Is a wellsite opening a safety zone for a wildland firefighter or a survival zone or neither? - abstract 2009 Document
Thorburn, Alexander LACES versus LCES: adopting an 'A' for 'anchor points' to improve wildland firefighter safety 2001 Document
Alexander, Thorburn LACES: Adding an "A" for Anchor point(s) to the LCES wildland firefighter safety system 2015 Document
Alexander Latest developments in crown fire behavior prediction 2005 Media
Alexander Limitations on accuracy of wildland fire behavior predictions 2004 Document
Perrakis, Cruz, Alexander, Taylor, Beverly Linking dynamic empirical fire spread models: introducing Canadian Conifer Pyrometrics 2020 Document
Alexander Living with fire in the boreal forest 2009 Media
Cruz, Alexander, Sullivan Mantras of wildland fire behaviour modelling: facts or fallacies? 2017 Document
Cruz, Alexander Modelling the rate of fire spread and uncertainty associated with the onset and propagation of crown fires in conifer forest stands 2017 Document
Alexander On linking the impacts and effects of wildland fires to their behavior 2012 Media
Alexander On Looking Back in Time at Wildfire Behavior Research in Western & Northern Canada: A Personal Perspective 2021 Media
Cruz, Alexander Operational prediction of crown fire behavior 2014 Document
Lavoie, Alexander, Macdonald Photo guide for quantitatively assessing the characteristics of forest fuels in a jack pine - black spruce chronosequence in the Northwest Territories 2010 Document
Cruz, Alexander, Wakimoto Predicting crown fire behavior to support forest fire management decision-making 2002 Document
Alexander, Maffey Predicting fire behavior in Canada's aspen forests 1992 Document
Otway, Bork, Anderson, Alexander Predicting ground fire ignition potential in aspen communities 2006 Document